Recommended Readings


The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: initial validity and internal consistency findings from three multisite studies with adolescents and adults.

Posner K, Brown GK, Stanley B, Brent DA, Yershova KV, Oquendo MA, Currier GW, Melvin GA, Greenhill L, Shen S, Mann JJ. Am J Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;168(12):1266-77. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.10111704.

Research on suicide prevention and interventions requires a standard method for assessing both suicidal ideation and behavior to identify those at risk and to track treatment response. The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) was designed to quantify the severity of suicidal ideation and behavior. The authors examined the psychometric properties of the scale.


Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Improve Child Physical Abuse Screening and Detection in the Emergency Department.

Carson SM. J Emerg Nurs. 2018 Nov;44(6):576-581. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2018.04.003. Epub 2018 May 17.

The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement an evidence-based screening program that included provider education on child physical abuse, a systematic screening protocol, and use of the validated Escape Instrument.


Screening Children for Abuse and Neglect: A Review of the Literature.

Hoft M1, Haddad L. J Forensic Nurs. 2017 Jan/Mar;13(1):26-34. doi: 10.1097/JFN.0000000000000136.

This literature review focuses on physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and neglect, occurring in one or multiple forms (polyabuse). A systematic, in-depth analysis of the literature was conducted. This literature review provides information for identifying children who have been abused and neglected but exposes the need for a comprehensive screening instrument or protocol that will capture all forms of child abuse and neglect.


Pediatric Pain Assessment In the Emergency Department: A Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Protocol.

Habich M, Letizia M. Pediatr Nurs. 2015 Jul-Aug;41(4):198-202.

Despite the presence of published standards of care specific to pain assessment and management, nurses in the ED may not know about and/or consistently use these evidence-based practices. In particular, pediatric patients are inconsistently and/or inappropriately assessed for pain in the ED. The aim of this project was to make standard the utilization of evidence-based practices regarding pediatric pain assessment in the ED at a community hospital.


Pain Assessment in Newborns, Infants, and Children.

Beltramini A, Milojevic K, Pateron D. Pediatr Ann. 2017 Oct 1;46(10):e387-e395. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20170921-03.

Numerous pain scales exist. Many are reliable and some are recommended, but all have specific conditions for their use. In this article, the authors review the available pain scales for children from birth to adolescence. They provide the validity criteria of each pain scale to help caregivers use the adapted tools. They then propose a synthesis of the reliable tools to use based on the pain context.


Paediatric early warning systems for detecting and responding to clinical deterioration in children: a systematic review.

Lambert V, Matthews A, MacDonell R, Fitzsimons J. BMJ Open. 2017 Mar 13;7(3):e014497. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014497.

This article systematically reviews the available evidence on pediatric early warning systems (PEWS) for use in acute pediatric healthcare settings for the detection of, and timely response to, clinical deterioration in children.


Implementation of goal-directed therapy for children with suspected sepsis in the emergency department.

Cruz AT, Perry AM, Williams EA, Graf JM, Wuestner ER, Patel B. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar;127(3):e758-66. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2895. Epub 2011 Feb 21.

Suboptimal care for children with septic shock includes delayed recognition and inadequate fluid resuscitation. This article describes the implementation of an emergency department (ED) protocol for the recognition of septic shock and facilitate adherence to national treatment guidelines.