Hospitals eligible to take the assessment are those with EDs open 24/7.

EDs were categorized by annual pediatric volume:

  • low (<1,800 patients)
  • medium (1,800-4,999)
  • medium-high (5,000-9,999)
  • high (>10,000)

Hospital types included:

  • general hospital
  • children’s hospital within a general hospital
  • stand-alone children’s hospital
  • critical access hospital
  • micro-hospital
  • off-site hospital or satellite ED
  • independently owned free-standing ED
  • other

The ED configuration was defined as:

  • a general ED (adults and children are seen in the same space)
  • a separate pediatric ED in a hospital that treats both children and adults
  • a pediatric ED in a children’s hospital
  • or “other”

To view full ED demographics, view Table 1 in the research paper.